【Fujitsu】 UTS/M

 UTS/M was the UNIX operating system (hereinafter “OS”) for Fujitsu’s mainframes, and was announced in April 1985. UTS/M was a UNIX system based on UTS (Universal Time-sharing System), a UNIX system developed by Amdahl Corp. of the United States for mainframes, and had extended functions for Fujitsu’s FACOM M series general-purpose computers.
 In August 1990, Fujitsu announced UNIX UXP/M, which was the world’s first mainframe UNIX to adopt the latest international standard UNIX system V release 4.
 The following describes the brief history of Fujitsu’s mainframe UNIX products and the features of UTS/M and UXP/M.

1. Brief history of Fujitsu’s mainframe UNIX

 UNIX was created at AT&T Bell Laboratory in the United States in 1969 as an OS that aimed at a superior interactive operation. In 1981, Amdahl of the United States commercialized UTS. The company had been internally using UTS, for which UNIX had been transplanted to a mainframe in order to increase efficiency in in-house program development.
 In January 1985, Fujitsu announced an agreement with which Fujitsu would transplant the Amdahl UTS to Fujitsu’s M series mainframes and S-3000 series super mini-computers.
 In April 1985, Fujitsu announced UTS/M as the UNIX for the M series, and UTS/S as the UNIX for the S-3000 series.
 For UTS/M and UTS/S, Fujitsu enhanced UTS by adopting such functions as extension for making better use of the hardware of Fujitsu’s M series and S-3000 series, support for Fujitsu’s peripherals and support for Japanese language. UTS/M and UTS/S were mainly used by universities and research institutes.
 Later, when model E of the VP series supercomputers was released in July 1987, Fujitsu announced UTS/M support for the supercomputer VP and UTS/M support for the virtual computer system AVM. At that point, however, only the scalar function of the VP system was available and the vector function was not available. When the supercomputer VP2000 was announced in December 1988, VPO (VP Option), which supported VP2000 for UTS/M, was announced for making it possible to use the vector function.
 In August 1990, UXP/M(*), the world’s first mainframe UNIX for which the latest international standard UNIX system V release 4 was transplanted to the M series, was announced. UXP/M enabled the user to build a larger mainframe system by allowing the user to use a large-size memory space through support of the extended architecture of the M series and by extending the file size.

  *:UXP = The UNIX Product
2. Features of UTS/M

 The following describes major features of UTS/M. The most important feature was that it allowed the user to use a mainframe equipped with powerful processing capacity and a wide variety of peripherals without degrading the functions of the UNIX system.

(1) Standard UNIX functions
 Because UTS/M was based on UNIX system V release 2.0 and complied with standard UNIX functions, it allowed mutual connection with computers of different architectures and use of the same application among these computers. Specifically, UTS/M had the network functions of Berkley UNIX such as TCP/IP, which was a de-facto standard for inter-system connection, and the socket interface. Further UTS/M provided standard network applications such as NFS and X Window System.
(2) Powerful processing capacity of the mainframe and use of a wide variety of peripherals
 In UTS, Fujitsu provided the following extensions for standard UNIX in order to enjoy the high processing capacity of the M series:
- Efficient process management by using a multiple virtual memory control, and provision of a 16-MB user program memory space by separating the OS space and the user program space into another space
- Acceleration of file accessing speed by extending the block size of the file system to 4 KB (cf. 512 B with System III, and 1 KB with System V), and deploying the file system (virtual I/O) on the real memory.
 As a result of these extensions, the OS was capable of utilizing not only the high CPU-processing capacity of the mainframe but also a high I/O throughput. In addition, it was able to use peripherals that were greatly superior to minicomputers and workstations, such as a high-capacity high-performance magnetic disk unit and a high-speed printer. Consequently, UTS/M demonstrated outstanding total processing capacity among UNIX systems.
(3) Reliability and operability
 Because UTS/M was designed for a large number of users, it had to handle a large volume of data. Therefore the company worked hard to enhance the reliability and operability of UTS/M. For example, Fujitsu improved reliability by using functions of the hardware such as machine checking, channel checking and automatic path recovery. In addition, the company provided an automatic operation function, a function for limiting resources for each user, and a file backup system.
(4) Realization of coexistence with other OSs for the M series through virtual computer system AVM
 By enabling UTS/M to coexist with another OS (e.g. OSIV/F4 MSP) for the M series under AVM, the OS was capable of transferring files and jobs between the two OSs. Thus, it was effective for fusing an existing system with a UNIX system.
3. Features of UXP/M

 UXP/M was capable of operating on the M series and on the VP2000 series, these series were based on M series extended architecture EXA (EXtended system Architecture). UXP/M had the following features:

(1) Addition of advanced functions based on UNIX system V release 4
 UNIX was originally created on the assumption that it would operate on small-to-medium computers. UXP/M was supplemented with advanced functions that had developed with the M series and the VP series in order to meet large systems (e.g., up to 256 channels, 2 GB user memory space, 2 GB-plus file size, automatic operation function, large-volume data backup using a magnetic tape library), and to meet high-speed computation systems (use of VP2000’s vector, support for system storage (memory) unit (SSU), support for multiprocessor system).
(2) High-speed network
 The OS supported fast LAN FDDI (ISO standard) at 100 MB/sec, and ultra-fast LAN UltraNET at 1 GB/sec.
(3) Compatibility with UTS/M
 UXP/M ensured compatibility in programs developed for the existing UTS/M (compatible in source/object/load-module).
 In addition, the OS inherited such UTS/M operation functions as linkage with the OSIV/MSP system under a virtual computer (AVM/EX).