At the dawn of computers, universities and research institutes led the way in computer R&D. But as computers advanced and became larger and more complex, development costs and labor soared. Today computer manufacturers do the bulk of computer R&D, predicated on eventual commercialization. With advances in semiconductor technology, it became easy to obtain bit-slice processors as well as LSI, microprocessors, FPGAs, and memory chips, so universities and research institutes conducted R&D and prototype testing of various computer architectures. The Other Computers category contains computers that do not fit in the other categories, such as LISP machines, Prolog machines, and dataflow computer architectures, developed by universities and research institutes.